West indian countries

Imperial countries that ruled several parts of India other than the British

Medieval India attracted much attention from invaders and western imperial nations due to the natural wealth, high quality cotton and silk it produced. Indian spices like cinnamon, cardamom, cloves and pepper have found a big market in Europe. With the development of the Portuguese trading center at Quilon (Kollam), it is believed that the colonial era in India began.

India used to be an attraction for foreign invaders; here are the countries mentioned below which once established a colony in India and its various parts;

Portuguese: The State of India, also called the Portuguese State of India or simply Portuguese India, was a state of the Portuguese Empire founded six years after the discovery of a sea route to the Indian subcontinent by Vasco da Gama , a subject of the Kingdom. from Portugal.

The first Portuguese to land in India was Vasco De Gama in 1498. However, the period of Portuguese rule in India is said to be between 1505 and 1961. Portuguese colonialism outlived its English counterpart, but unlike them had limited influence beyond the limits of their colonies.

Portuguese India was divided into several distinct territories: (1) Goa, with its capital in the middle of the country’s western coast; (2) Damo, or Daman, with the divided territories of Dadrá and Nagar Haveli, north of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), and situated between the Indian states of Maharashtra and Gujarat; and (3) Diu, with the island of Pani Kota on the southern coast of the Kathiawar peninsula in the state of Gujarat.

Dutch: Dutch India consisted of the colonies and trading posts of the Dutch East India Company on the Indian subcontinent. It is only used as a geographical definition, as there has never been a political authority governing all of Dutch India. During the days when the Dutch were commercially active in India, they operated several mints, in Cochin, Masulipatnam, Nagapatam (or Negapatam), Pondicherry (during the five years 1693-98 when the Dutch took control from the French), and Pulicat .

French: French India was made up of five physically distinct enclaves on the Indian subcontinent that were once the factories of the French East India Company. In 1950 and 1954 they were effectively merged into the Republic of India. In India, the French first arrived in 1673. The Mughal governor of Bengal sold Chandernagor to the French. The Sultan of Bijapur sold Pondicherry to them the following year. Both developed in French in the commercial centers of India.

The former French colonies of Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahé and Yanam constitute the Union Territory of Pondicherry. Tamil Nadu surrounds the regions of Pondicherry and Karaikal, while Kerala and Andhra Pradesh border the states of Mahé and Yanam respectively.

Danish: While Pondicherry is widely hailed as a slice of France in India, Tranquebar, with its rich Danish heritage, remains quietly out of the spotlight. On the edge of the Bay of Bengal in southern India, there is a city whose name in the local language sounds as melodious as its meaning: Tharangambadi, or “land of singing waves”.

During the Napoleonic Wars (1803 AD-1815 AD), the British invaded Danish shipping, devastated the Indian trade of the Danish East India Company and eventually captured the Danish colonies, incorporating them into British India. The last Danish colonial post-Serampore was ceded to Britain by Denmark in 1845 AD.

Sweden: Although it did not establish long-term colonies in India, the Swedish East India Company briefly owned a factory in Porto Novo (now Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu). A month after its construction, French and British forces destroyed the fort.

Austria: Three consecutive attempts by the Habsburg Monarchy, then the Austrian Empire, to colonize and inhabit the Nicobar Islands constituted the Austrian colonization of these territories. Only the first attempt, made in 1778, was successful. Due to earlier British colonization in 1868, the second attempt was abandoned and the third, in 1886, was also abandoned. The Danes had previously occupied the Nicobar Islands in 1756. After several epidemics of malaria, the Danes withdrew, but they retained a nominal claim to the islands until 1848.

Japanese occupation: In 1942, during World War II, the Japanese occupied the Andaman Islands. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands (8,293 km2 out of 139 islands) are a group of islands located in the Bay of Bengal approximately 1,250 km (780 mi) from Calcutta, 1,200 km (750 mi) from Chennai and 190 km ( 120 mi) from Cape Nargis in Burma.

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